Saturday, December 19, 2015

short stroy slam week 35: the fire place at Rod Lott and Mitchell Kezin's homes

short story slam week 35, Dece 17 to Janu 10, 2016

everyone is excited
because the tradition of Christmas follows
as almost all shop for love giving
to my sincere comprehension,
love giving means gift sending, or seasons greetings,
my heart jumps when I hear jolly musicals
More Jolly,
Less Jingle,
that's what Michael's business shop says.
Bell a ball,
Jingle Bell rocks,
that's what Oklahoma Gazette artists Rod Lott and Mitchell Kezin write
Mary's boy child oh my lord Jesus,
Joy to the world, Santa Claus is coming to town,
Let it snow, and Jingle Bell, these ring on newspaper Dan Quyen
from Zhibay dot com,
We see Tom H Tan, Han & Associates,
as well as John Kang, Stella Shih, Ivy Lin, Paul Yung, and Yan Xun

 Image result for christmas shadow

 Image result for christmas shadow
Measuring Greatness from the Manger Up


Unexpected Nightmares Keep Me Awake amazingly
Six Word Saturday

Thursday, December 10, 2015

North China University of Technology 北方工业大学 and Ying Liu

North China University of Technology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
North China University of Technology
Established 1946
Type National university
President 王晓纯 xiaochun wang
Administrative staff
Students 16000
Undergraduates 10184
Postgraduates 2300
Location Beijing,  People's Republic of China
Campus urban: Shijingshan District
Website North China University of Technology Official website
North China University of Technology (simplified Chinese: 北方工业大学; traditional Chinese: 北方工業大學; pinyin: běifāng gōngyè dàxué) is a university in Shijingshan District, Western Beijing, People's Republic of China.
North China University of Technology has 10 colleges, 30 majors, 12 teaching and experimental centers, and 9 research and design institutes. Colleges were reformed in 2015. 包括,计算机学院、电子信息工程学院、电气与控制工程学院、机械与材料工程学院、建筑与艺术学院、土木工程学院、经济管理学院、文法学院、理学院、马克思 主义学院。

Tuesday, December 8, 2015

Monday Mellow Yellow, ABc Wednesday, on v, and Friday My Town Shoot Out

  Image result for honeyeater birds
Image result for honeyeater birds

 Monday is gone
with Hijack hamburger in Cleverland,
 Tuesday is here
with Volleyball and honeyeater birds near

visual arts are black, and white,
colorful words carry weight,
a yellow ball bounces up and down
glad to have a parrot coming for jerry brown 

Image result for volleyball 
 Image result for volleyball

V stands for Volleyball 

Image result for visual art
Image result for volleyball

Flickering Lights Friday My Town Shoot Out Link-Up

Friday, November 27, 2015

ralph Haymond's friends

W. Bruce Pratt
Ralph Haymond
Angie Argo White
Darrell Gambill
Pawnee Bill
Leslie Torres
Pendleton Blanket
Marjorie Buchanan
Carla Edwards
Martanne Denney
Roger Creager
Barry Sandlers
Luke Ball
Chisholm Johns
Tabor Johns
Corbin Alley
Gunnar Gordon
Kindi Novotny
Kyle Pratt
Blaze Moorman
Makenzie Figueroa
Steve's Service
Hominy Family Health Center
Donald Sutmiller
Charles O'Leary
Wendy Madison
Michael J. Fox
Deborah Brantly
Shelly Simon

Friday, November 20, 2015

short story slam week 33, three word wednesday

Something Magical Happens When You Write a Book

not being able to demonstrate efficiency
of Bhutanese, Jill Ella signs, occasionallly,
seeing pierced faulty in nature is fine,
an afternoon of mixed thinking seems enigmatic, yet worthy

blackbird whistling barbaric songs,
pantomiming intended attention,
tree branches moving in whirled rhythms,
the sky is grinning

murmuring Yalu river,
North Koreans improves their dinner meals daily,
Detective spy from Russia withdraws a lot,
open minded dating crops many traditional women's urge.
it is Friday,
the cloud is milky,
let's buy some cornbread stuffing mix,
get ready for a grateful trip to Albuquerque civilians.

Whirligig 34
3WW Week No. 454: faulty, enigmatic, grovel

   photo 64e4b4ad-6f82-49a6-8e84-fd1c372f47d8_zpsuszpjqcu.jpg

Sunday, November 1, 2015

short story slam week 32

Bluebell Books Twitter Club!

Chicken drumsticks
the meat is yummy only
if it goes with honey

Napa cabbages
it sizzles my writing when
Ginger joins Onions

Milk, Apple Juice,
foreign to some newly arrivals
You get to know cowboys

social security, 
an insurance to those eldly
or to those dependents

when yahoo does flickr,
google does blogger, together
with firefox, life is better

Thursday, October 22, 2015

the way Vallory Vencill and Sue Jacobs Think (short story slam week 31)

#Short Story Slam prompt 31

image credit:, peanut cartoon entertainment

Indians were used to reside at Rhode island, Oklahoma Cherokee territory,  nobody thinks
that they are offensive to anybody outside the states, when George Pierce and Thomas 
Sheldon came, they jumped in joy for getting to know a place differing from their old
greenland, and they had difficulty being accepted by these Paw Wow dancers

some goods George and Thomas brought saved their lives, because due to human mind,
they were also given corn, bread, and sweet yams to eat.

after three hundred years, via word of mouth, more aliens landed in their place, there were 
civil war, the suspension of segregation, slavery was developed then removed by lincoln,
and the land was turned into a union with fifty puzzle pieces.

so, our home include all kinds of candy and flavors when Halloween hits, because everyone
appreciate the most powerful freedom of immigration and freedom of expressions...
a girl with yellow hair could smile at a boy with dark face, a woman from Italy could date a man 
from Laos, and if a pumpkin is carved into a ghost, then we believe that people are honoring
our grandparent, great  grandparents, and great great grandparents, or their friends...
Vallory Vencill and Sue Jacobs agree to send some of our young undergraduate students oversea,
so that they learn of Costa Rica culture, Di Ryter and Haseley Stephen decide to study aboard
with their international education majors, so that  they travel and obtain knowledge from Spain, Barcelona, Madrid, Toledo, Valencia, Granada, Costa Del Sol, Seville, Vietnam, and  Adrience Sanogo and Patricia Jordan found that college education students do have interests in India, China, 
England, Peru, Brazil, France, and Portland..

when US civilians land on a foreign land, they have become aliens to those, and we believe that
on the day of October 31, when a stranger wearing a blue holes costume knocking at your door,
you must admit that it is a way to connect, co-own a piece of sweet emotion, and tease about oneself for being a future ghost so that the tradition continues and we feel nothing but our own greed and narrow minded analysis.

Happy Halloween!

Saturday, October 3, 2015

today's words, tomorrow's dreams

nothing occurs
when words go skyward,
things happen
when figures hit key boards

today's words,
tomorrow's dreams,
a young girl stays awake,
because she needs a new shoes to impress her playmate.

Monday, September 7, 2015

Laura Welch Bush


Laura Lane Welch Bush is the wife of the 43rd President, George W. Bush. She served as First Lady from 2001 to 2009, advocating for historic education reform and the well-being of women and families worldwide.
During her eight years in the White House, Mrs. Laura Bush was a champion of President Bush's ambitious agenda and a gracious representative of the American people.  A former teacher and librarian, she has dedicated herself to advancing education and promoting the well-being of women and families worldwide.
Mrs. Bush was a key advocate of the President's historic education reform – the No Child Left Behind Act – and a staunch supporter of NCLB's Reading First program, which is the largest early reading initiative in American history.  Early in the President's first term, she launched "Ready to Read, Ready to Learn," an education initiative that promoted best practices in early childhood education and raised awareness of innovative teacher training programs. Inspired by her success with the Texas Book Festival, Mrs. Bush founded the National Book Festival to introduce tens of thousands of Americans to their favorite authors each year.
In 2003, Mrs. Bush answered the call to take her education agenda global, as honorary ambassador for the United Nations Literacy Decade. In this role, she has worked with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to promote global literacy programs with measurable outcomes. She convened world leaders for annual summits that inspired successful practices, beginning with the first-ever White House Conference on Global Literacy in 2006. Mrs. Bush has visited schools and met with students in nations from Afghanistan to Zambia, with a particular focus on encouraging girls and women to pursue their education.
As the leader of President Bush's Helping America's Youth initiative, Mrs. Bush oversaw 10 Federal agencies in a groundbreaking partnership that realized the vision of the President Bush's Management Agenda. Through a national conference in Washington and six regional conferences, Helping America's Youth taught more than 1,000 community members new strategies to address the needs of at-risk youth.
Since the attacks of September 11, Mrs. Bush has been an outspoken supporter of the women of Afghanistan.  In November 2001, she became the first First Lady to give the President's weekly radio address, speaking out against the Taliban's oppression of women and children.  She has traveled to Afghanistan three times and served as honorary chair of the U.S.-Afghan Women's Council.
Mrs. Bush has been a leading advocate for the cause of human rights in Burma. She drew global attention to the ruling junta's oppression with a 2006 roundtable at the UN headquarters. After Cyclone Nargis devastated Burma in May 2008, Mrs. Bush held an unprecedented press conference in the White House Press Briefing Room and urged the regime to accept international aid. Mrs. Bush also traveled to the Thai-Burma border and met with refugees who fled the abuses of Burma's military regime.
Mrs. Bush has traveled to all 50 States and more than 75 countries. She has made five trips to Africa alone in support of President Bush's life-saving global health initiatives, including the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). In visits to 10 of the 15 countries targeted by the PMI and 12 of the 15 PEPFAR countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas, she witnessed first-hand the success of these historic commitments. In 2006, she joined President Bush to co-host the first-ever White House Summit on Malaria, which helped raise awareness of malaria and support grassroots efforts to eradicate the disease.
Mrs. Bush has helped thousands of women take charge of their health by raising awareness of breast cancer and heart disease. As Ambassador for the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Heart Truth campaign, Mrs. Bush traveled the country to educate women about the symptoms of heart disease, which is the number one killer of American women. In addition, Mrs. Bush helped launch the U.S.-Middle East Partnership for Breast Cancer Awareness and Research and the Partnership for Breast Cancer Awareness and Research of the Americas, which unite the resources of researchers and advocates in the United States and around the world.
Mrs. Laura Bush was born on November 4, 1946, in Midland, Texas. She earned degrees in education and library science and worked for several years as an elementary school teacher and children's librarian before marrying George Walker Bush. They have twin daughters, Jenna and Barbara, and a son-in-law, Henry Hager. The Bush family also includes two dogs, Barney and Miss Beazley. Prior to becoming First Lady of the United States, Mrs. Bush served as the First Lady of Texas.
Learn more about Laura Welch Bush's spouse, George W. Bush.

American first ladies

The First Ladies

 Nancy Reagan, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Rosalynn Carter and Michelle Obama.
Which two first ladies met their husbands through local newspapers? Who was the first First Lady to make regular nationwide radio broadcasts? Which First Lady cared for wounded soldiers in her husband's command? Who was originally a Broadway actress before becoming the First Lady?  If you're looking to learn more about the past First Ladies who have helped lead our country, you're in the right place. Take a look at our full set of biographies. Then, quiz your friends.

18th Century

Martha Dandridge Custis Washington Abigail Smith Adams

19th Century

Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson Dolley Payne Todd Madison Elizabeth Kortright Monroe Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams Rachel Donelson Jackson Hannah Hoes Van Buren Anna Tuthill Symmes Harrison Letitia Christian Tyler Julia Gardiner Tyler Sarah Childress Polk Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor Abigail Powers Fillmore Jane Means Appleton Pierce Harriet Lane Mary Todd Lincoln Eliza McCardle Johnson Julia Dent Grant Lucy Ware Webb Hayes Lucretia Rudolph Garfield Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur Frances Folsom Cleveland Caroline Lavinia Scott Harrison Frances Folsom Cleveland Ida Saxton McKinley

20th Century

Edith Kermit Carow Roosevelt Helen Herron Taft Ellen Axson Wilson Edith Bolling Galt Wilson Florence Kling Harding Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge Lou Henry Hoover Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Elizabeth Virginia Wallace Truman Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Claudia Taylor (Lady Bird) Johnson Patricia Ryan Nixon Elizabeth Bloomer Ford Rosalynn Smith Carter Nancy Davis Reagan Barbara Pierce Bush Hillary Rodham Clinton

21st Century

Laura Welch Bush Michelle Obama

Friday, August 7, 2015

University of Göttingen


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
University of Göttingen
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Uni gottingen siegel.svg
Latin: Universitas Regiæ Georgiæ Augustæ
Motto In publica commoda (Latin)
Zum Wohle aller
Motto in English
For the good of all
Established 1734
Type Public Law foundation (Stiftung öffentlichen Rechts, since 2003)
Budget €1.05 billion (2012)
President Ulrike Beisiegel[de]
Academic staff
Administrative staff
Students 26.381
Location Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany
Affiliations German Excellence Universities
Coimbra Group
U4 Network
The University of Göttingen (German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU), known informally as Georgia Augusta, is a public comprehensive research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and starting classes in 1737, the university is the oldest in the state of Lower Saxony and the largest in student enrollment, which stands at around 26,000. The university is highly renowned and respected both in Germany and throughout the world. This reputation has thus shaped Göttingen into a university city with a high student and faculty population.



Göttingen in 1735
King George II, founder and president of the university
In 1734, King George II of Great Britain, who was also Elector of Hanover, gave his Prime Minister in Hanover, Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen, the order to establish a university in Göttingen to propagate the ideas of academic freedom and enlightenment at the times of the European Enlightenment.

18th – 19th centuries

Throughout the remainder of the 18th century the University of Göttingen was in the top rank of German universities, with its free spirit and atmosphere of scientific exploration and research. Famous till our days is Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the first to hold a professorship (1769–99) explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. By 1812, Göttingen had become an internationally acknowledged modern university with a library of more than 250,000 volumes.
In the first years of the University of Göttingen it became known for its faculty of law. In the 18th century Johann Stephan Pütter, the most prestigious scholar of public law at that time, taught jus publicum here for half a century. The subject had attracted students such as Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich, later diplomat and Prime Minister of Austria, and Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later established the University of Berlin. In 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant.
King George II in the Pauliner Church in 1748
By the university's centenary in 1837, it was known as the "university of law", as the students enrolled by the faculty of law often made up more than half of the university's students. Göttingen became a Mecca for the study of public law in Germany. Heinrich Heine, the famous German poet, studied law and was awarded the degree of Dr.iur..
However, political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 in 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the seven professors – Die Göttinger Sieben – the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800–1876); the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785–1860); the orientalist Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803–1875); the historian Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805–1875); the physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804–1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. Prior to this, the Brothers Grimm had taught here and compiled the first German Dictionary.
The old building of the university and its library in 1815
The Pauliner Church, once the seat of the University Library in which Heinrich Heine, the Brothers Grimm, and Goethe worked
In the 19th century, Gustav von Hugo, the forerunner[clarification needed] of the historical school of law, and Rudolf von Jhering, a jurist who created the theory of "culpa in contraendo" and wrote Battle for Right, taught here and maintained the reputation of the faculty of law. Otto von Bismarck, the main creator and the first Chancellor of the second German Empire, had also studied law in Göttingen in 1833: he lived in a tiny house on the "Wall", now known as "Bismarck Cottage". According to oral tradition, he lived there because his rowdiness had caused him to be banned from living within the city walls.
Göttingen also had a focus on natural science, especially mathematics. Carl Friedrich Gauss taught here in the 19th century. Bernhard Riemann, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and a number of significant mathematicians made their contributions to mathematics here. By 1900, David Hilbert and Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made Göttingen a world mecca of mathematics at the beginning of the 20th century.

End of the 19th century – beginning of the 20th century

During this period, the University of Göttingen achieved its academic peak.
The old Auditorium Maximum (built in 1826–1865)
In 1903, its teaching staff numbered 121 and its students 1529. Ludwig Prandtl joined the university in 1904, and developed it into a leader in fluid mechanics and in aerodynamics over the next two decades. In 1925, Prandtl was appointed as the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Mechanics. He introduced the concept of boundary layer and founded mathematical aerodynamics by calculating air flow in the down wind direction. Many of Prandtl's students went on to make fundamental contributions to aerodynamics.
From 1921 to 1933, the physics theory group was led by Max Born, who, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics. He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics.
To date, 47 Nobel Prize laureates have studied, taught or made contributions here. Most of these prizes were given in the first half of the 20th century, which was called the "Göttingen Nobel prize wonder".
Alte Aula (Great Hall), also Karzer, at Wilhelmsplatz (built in 1835–1837)
Social studies and the study of humanities continued to flourish. Edmund Husserl, the philosopher and known as the father of phenomenology, taught here. Max Weber, the sociologist studied here for one term.

"Great purge" of 1933

In the 1930s, the university became a focal point for the Nazi crackdown on "Jewish physics", as represented by the work of Albert Einstein. In what was later called the "great purge" of 1933, academics including Max Born, Victor Goldschmidt, James Franck, Eugene Wigner, Leó Szilárd, Edward Teller, Emmy Noether, and Richard Courant were expelled or fled. Most of them fled Nazi Germany for places like the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
The Monument of King William IV who bequeathed Aula to the university in 1837
The interior of the university Aula

Renovation after War

After World War II, the University of Göttingen was the first university in the western Zones to be re-opened under British control in 1945. Jürgen Habermas, a German philosopher and sociologist, pursued his study here in Göttingen. Later, Richard von Weizsäcker, the former President of Germany, earned his Dr.Jur. here. Gerhard Schröder, the former Chancellor of Germany, also graduated from the school of law here in Göttingen, and he became a lawyer thereafter.

Current status

Today the university consists of 13 faculties and around 26,000 students are enrolled. More than 400 professors and 4,000 academic staff work at the university, assisted by a technical and administrative staff of over 7,000. The post-war expansion of the university led to the establishment of a new, modern 'university quarter' in the north of the town. The architecture of the old university can still be seen in the Auditorium Maximum (1826/1865) and the Great Hall (1835/1837) at Wilhelmsplatz.

Faculties, Centers, and Institutes

The university encompasses 13 faculties and a total of 47 additional centers and institutes (including associated centers and institutes but excluding institutes that operate within the faculties themselves as well as the Max Planck Institutes, which collaborate with the university).
The faculties are:
  • Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
  • Faculty of Biology and Psychology
  • Faculty of Chemistry
  • Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology
  • Faculty of Geoscience and Geography
  • Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science
  • Faculty of Physics
  • Faculty of Law
  • Faculty of Social Sciences
  • Faculty of Economic Sciences
  • Faculty of Humanities
  • Faculty of Theology
  • Medical Center (Universitätsmedizin Göttingen)
Centers and institutes:
  • Göttingen Research Campus
  • Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities
  • GWDG (IT Center)
  • German Aerospace Center (DLR)
  • German Primate Center
  • Institute for Regional Research
  • Institute of the Protestant Church in Germany for Ecclesiastical Law
  • Laser Laboratory Göttingen
  • Centrum Orbis Orientalis et Occidentalis (CORO) – Center for Ancient and Oriental Studies
  • Center for Modern East Asian Studies (CeMEAS)
  • Center for Modern Indian Studies (CeMIS)
  • Courant Research Center: Education and Religion
  • Courant Research Center: Text Structures
  • Göttingen Center for Digital Humanities
  • Centrum Orbis Orientalis et Occidentalis (CORO) - Abteilung Lehre II - Antike Kulturen
  • Internationales Schreibzentrum
  • Center for Medieval and Early Modern Studies (ZMF)
  • Center of Modern Humanities (ZTMK)
  • Center for Comparative Literature Studies
  • Forum for Interdisciplinary Religious Studies (FIRSt)
  • Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Göttingen (BCCN)
  • Courant Research Center: Evolution of Social Behaviour
  • Courant Research Center: Geobiology
  • Courant Research Center: Nano-Spectroscopy and X-Ray Imaging
  • Courant Research Center: Higher Order Structures in Mathematics
  • DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) Research Center for the Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CMPB)
  • European Neuroscience Institute (ENI)
  • Geosciene Center
  • Göttingen Center for Molecular Biosciences (GZMB)
  • Center of Biodiversity and sustainable Land Use
  • Center for Statistics (ZfS)
  • Center for Systems Neuroscience
  • Center for Computational Sciences
  • Research Center for Animal Production and Technology
  • Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
  • Courant Research Center: Poverty, Equity and Growth in Developing Countries
  • Institute of Diversity Research
  • Interdisciplinary Center for Sustainable Development (IZNE)
  • Center for Social Science Methods (MZS)
  • Center for Empirical Research into Teaching and Schools (ZeUS)
  • Center for Medical Law
  • Institute of Regional Research
  • Institute of Sugar Beet Research
  • Sociological Research Institute (SOFI)
  • Institute of Economics in Small Business Economics
  • Institute of Applied Plant Nutrition (IAPN)
  • SFB 755 Nanoscale Photonic Imaging
  • SFB 803 Functionality Controlled by Organization in and between Membranes
  • SFB 860 Integrative Structural Biology of Dynamic Macromolecular Assemblies
  • SFB 889 Cellular Mechanisms of Sensory Processing
  • SFB 937 Collective Behavior of Soft and Biological Matter
  • SFB 963 Astrophysical Flow Instabilities and Turbulence
  • SFB 990 Ecological and Socioeconomic Functions of Tropical Lowland Rainforest Transformation Systems (Sumatra, Indonesia)
  • SFB 1002 Modulatory Units in Heart Failure
  • SFB 1073 Atomic Scale Control of Energy Conversion

Thursday, July 23, 2015

Broken Arrow, Oklahoma


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Statue of an early 20th-century family, Centennial Park on Main Street
Statue of an early 20th-century family,
Centennial Park on Main Street
Location of within Tulsa County, and the state of Oklahoma
Location of within Tulsa County, and the state of Oklahoma
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma is located in USA
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 36°2′11″N 95°47′1″WCoordinates: 36°2′11″N 95°47′1″W
Country United States
State Oklahoma
Counties Tulsa, Wagoner
Founded 1902
Incorporated 1903
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City Manager Thom Moton
 • Mayor Craig Thurmond
 • City 45.6 sq mi (118.1 km2)
 • Land 45.0 sq mi (116.5 km2)
 • Water 0.6 sq mi (1.6 km2)
Elevation 755 ft (230 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City 98,850
 • Estimate (2014)[2] 104,726
 • Rank US: 278th
 • Density 2,200/sq mi (840/km2)
 • Metro 961,561 (US: 55th)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 74011-74014
Area code(s) 539/918
FIPS code 40-09050
GNIS feature ID 1090512[3]
Website City of Broken Arrow
Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the State of Oklahoma, primarily in Tulsa County but also with a section of the city in western Wagoner County. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2010 census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents and is the fourth largest city in the state.[4] However, a July 1, 2014, estimate reports that the population of the city is 104,726, making it the 280th largest city in the United States. The city is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 961,561 residents.
The Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad sold lots for the town site in 1902 and company secretary William S. Fears named it Broken Arrow.[5] The city was named for a Creek community settled by Creek Indians who had been forced to relocate from Alabama to Oklahoma along the Trail of Tears.
Though Broken Arrow was originally an agricultural community, its current economy is diverse. The city has the third largest concentration of manufacturers in the state.[6]


The city's name comes from an old Creek community in Alabama.[7] Members of that community were expelled from Alabama by the United States government, along the Trail of Tears in the 1830s. The Creek founded a new community in the Indian Territory, and named it after their old settlement in Alabama. The town's Creek name was Rekackv (pronounced thlee-Kawtch-kuh), meaning broken arrow. The new Creek settlement was located several miles south of present-day downtown Broken Arrow.
In 1902 the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad planned a railroad through the area and was granted town site privileges along the route.[5] They sold three of the as-yet-unnamed sites to the Arkansas Valley Town Site Company. William S. Fears, secretary of that company, was allowed to choose and name one of the locations. He selected a site about 18 miles southeast of Tulsa and about five miles north of the thlee-Kawtch-kuh settlement and named the new town site Broken Arrow, after the Indian settlement. The MKT railroad, which was completed in 1903, ran through the middle of the city. It still exists today and is now owned by Union Pacific which currently uses it for freight.
For the first decades of Broken Arrow's history, the town's economy was based mainly on agriculture.[8] The coal industry also played an important role, with several strip coal mines located near the city in the early 20th century. The city's newspaper, the Broken Arrow Ledger, started within a couple of years after the city's founding. Broken Arrow's first school was built in 1904.[8] The city did not grow much during the first half of the 1900s. During this time Broken Arrow's main commercial center was along Main Street. Most of the city's churches were also located on or near Main Street as well. A 1907 government census listed Broken Arrow's population at 1383.[9]
Only remnant of Haskell State School of Agriculture, built 1911, demolished 1987.
The Haskell State School of Agriculture opened in the Broken Arrow, Oklahoma Opera House on November 15, 1909. The school closed in 1917 for lack of funding, and the building was then used as by Broken Arrow High School. The building was razed in 1987.[10] Only a marker, shown here, remains at 808 East College Street in Broken Arrow. The front of cornerstone reads, "Haskell State School / Of Agriculture / J. H. Esslinger Supt. / W. A. Etherton Archt. / Bucy & Walker Contr." The side of cornerstone reads "Laid by the Masonic Fraternity / May 25, A. D. 1910, A. L. 5810. / George Huddell G. M. / Erected by The State Board of Agriculture / J. P. Conners Pres. / B. C. Pittuck Dean.". The school is commemorated on the National Register of Historic Places.
In the 1960s, Broken Arrow began to grow from a small town into a suburban city. The Broken Arrow Expressway (Oklahoma State Highway 51) was constructed in the mid-1960s and connected the city with downtown Tulsa, fueling growth in Broken Arrow. The population swelled from a little above 11,000 in 1970 to more than 50,000 in 1990, and then more than 74,000 by the year 2000. During this time, the city was more of a bedroom community. In recent years, city leaders have pushed for more economic development to help keep more Broken Arrowans working, shopping and relaxing in town rather than going to other cities.

Geography and climate

Broken Arrow is located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma. The city is part of the state's Green Country region known for its green vegetation, hills and lakes. Green Country is the most topographically diverse portion of the state with seven of Oklahoma's 11 eco-regions.[11]
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 45.6 square miles (118.1 km²), of which, 45.0 square miles (116.5 km²) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km²) of it (1.34%) is water.


[hide]Climate data for Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 45.7
Average low °F (°C) 22.2
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.6
Source: [12]


Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 1,383
1910 1,576
1920 2,086
1930 1,964
1940 2,074
1950 3,262
1960 5,982
1970 11,787
1980 35,761
1990 58,043
2000 74,859
2010 98,850
Est. 2014 104,726 [13] 5.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[14]
2013 Estimate[2]
According to the 2010 census, there were 98,850 people, 36,141 households, and 27,614 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,200 people per square mile (850/km²). There were 38,013 housing units at an average density of 602.0 per square mile (232.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.3% White, 4.3% African American, 5.2% Native American, 3.6% Asian (1.0% Vietnamese, 0.7% Indian, 0.4% Chinese, 0.3% Korean, 0.3% Hmong, 0.2% Pakistani, 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Japanese),[15] 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, and 5.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino were 6.5% (4.4% Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.3% Spanish, 0.1% Venezuelan, 0.1% Colombian).[16][17]
There were 36,141 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.4% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.6% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the city the population dispersal was 30.8% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $65,385 and the median income for a family was $74,355. The per capita income for the city was $29,141. About 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Of the city's population over the age of 25, 30.3% holds a bachelor's degree or higher.[18][19]


  • A 2007 crime survey by CQ Press found Broken Arrow to be the 22nd safest city in the nation and the safest city in Oklahoma.
  • Broken Arrow was listed as #66 and #69 in Money Magazine's 2006 & 2012 list of the 100 best places to live.[20]
  • Broken Arrow was listed as one of the "Top 25 Affordable Suburbs in the South" by Business Week Magazine in 2007.
  • The Pride of Broken Arrow marching band won 1st place in the Bands of America Grand Nationals championship at Indianapolis in 2006 & 2011.
  • Broken Arrow has been listed as a "Tree City USA" for over 6 years in a row.
  • Broken Arrow's new logo received an Award of Merit from the Public Relations Society of America - Tulsa Chapter in 2008.
  • Broken Arrow's branding campaign received the 2008 Innovations Award from the Oklahoma Municipal League.
  • Family Circle Magazine featured Broken Arrow as one of the 10 best towns for families in 2008.[21]

Business and industry

Historic building on Main Street after a total restoration (June, 2007).
Broken Arrow is home to a wide range of businesses and industries. In fact, the city is ranked third in its concentration of manufacturers in the state.[6]
Some of the city's more notable employers include:
Located in Broken Arrow since 1985, FlightSafety International (FSI) designs and builds aviation crew training devices called Flight Simulators at its Simulation Systems Division. With currently over 675 employees located there, of which about half are engineers, FSI is the largest private employer in the city. A number of new commercial developments are being built throughout the city, most notably along Oklahoma State Highway 51, which runs through the city. A Bass Pro Shops Outdoor World opened several years ago as the anchor to a development that includes hotels, restaurants, shopping, and eventually offices. A new full-service hospital and medical office building were constructed nearby in 2010 as an anchor to another large commercial development that will include retail space and two hotels. Oklahoma's first Dick's Sporting Goods opened in late 2011.[22]
In 2007 the city created the Broken Arrow Economic Development Corporation to help oversee economic development.[23]
In late 2007, the Broken Arrow Chamber of Commerce began "Advance Broken Arrow", an economic development campaign aimed at expanding and diversifying the city's economic base.[24]

Downtown redevelopment

Historic 1904 Victorian home on Main Street in downtown BA that has been converted into a business. (July, 2007).
In 2005, the city adopted a downtown revitalization master plan to help revive the city's historic downtown area. Some of the plans include a new 3-story museum to house the historical society and genealogical society, a farmer's market and plaza, a new performing arts center, updates and expansions to area parks, the conversion of the historic Central Middle School on Main Street into a professional development center, infrastructure and landscape improvements, and incentives to encourage denser infill, redevelopment, and reuse of the area's historic structures. Numerous buildings and homes have since been renovated, many new shops and offices have moved to downtown, and new townhomes are being built. The new historical museum, farmers market, and performing arts center opened in 2008.
The city also set strict new design standards in place that all new developments in the downtown area must adhere to. These standards were created to prevent "suburban" development in favor of denser, "urban" development and to ensure that new structures compliment and fit in with the historic buildings in downtown. In October 2012 Downtown Broken Arrow's main street corridor was named the Rose District.[25]


City government:[26]
Ward 1 Vice Mayor Richard Carter
Ward 2 Mayor Craig Thurmond
Ward 3 Mike Lester
Ward 4 Scott Eudey
At-Large Johnnie Parks
Broken Arrow uses the council-manager model of municipal government. The city's primary authority resides in the city council which approves ordinances, resolutions, and contracts. The city council consists of five members with four members are elected from the four city wards with the fifth member as an at-large member. Each council member serves for a two-year term and is eligible to serve for four years. Out of the council members, a mayor and vice-mayor is chosen every two years.[26] The day-to-day operations of the city is run by the city manager who reports directly to the city council.[27]
At the federal level, Broken Arrow lies within Oklahoma's 1st congressional district, represented by Jim Bridenstine.[28] In the State Senate, Broken Arrow is in District 25 (Mike Mazzei) and 36 (Bill Brown).[29][30] In the House, District 75 (Dan Kirby), 76 (David Brumbaugh), 98 (John Trebilcock) covers the city.[31]


Primary and secondary schools

Education in Broken Arrow is provided by Broken Arrow Public Schools. The district operates twenty five schools with fifteen Elementary Schools, Five Middle Schools, and Five Secondary Schools.[32] A portion of Broken Arrow is also served by Union Public Schools.[33]

Colleges and universities

Higher education in Broken Arrow is provided by Northeastern State University (Broken Arrow campus). The campus opened in 2001 and has an upperclassmen and graduate student population of 3,000.[34]
Broken Arrow is also served by Tulsa Technology Center Broken Arrow Campus. Established in 1983, it has an enrollment of about 3,500 full and part-time secondary and adult students.[35]
Broken Arrow is also home to Rhema Bible Training Center, established in 1974 by Kenneth E. Hagin; located on 110 acres, it has graduated over 40,000 alumni and has seven ministry concentrations. RBTC is currently led by Hagin's son, Kenneth W. Hagin.


The city's two libraries, Broken Arrow Library and South Broken Arrow Library, are part of the Tulsa City-County Library System.


Major highways in Broken Arrow include State Highway 51 (Broken Arrow Expressway). It passes through the north side of the city and leads to downtown Tulsa to the northwest. Heading east on the Broken Arrow Expressway leads to the Muskogee Turnpike, which connects the city to Muskogee.[36] Partial beltway, Creek Turnpike circles around the south of the city and connects the Turner Turnpike to the west terminus of the Will Rogers Turnpike.[36]
Public transportation for Broken Arrow is provided by Tulsa Transit. It has one route that connects the city to Tulsa. Bus services run Monday through Friday.[37]



Broken Arrow has one newspaper, the Broken Arrow Ledger. The paper is published every Wednesday.[38] It is owned by BH Media Group.[39] The Tulsa World, northeast Oklahoma's major daily newspaper, also features Broken Arrow news regularly. The staff at the Ledger has featured journalists and photographers Lesa Jones, Doug Quinn, and G. B. Poindexter.


Cox Cable channel 24 is the Broken Arrow Government-access television (GATV) cable TV municipal information channel. It displays, among other things, information about the city government, upcoming events, and general information about the city. The channel also features local weather reports.


Broken Arrow has a website that provides information on the city, its government, local amenities, safety, local news, and economic development.[40] The city's chamber of commerce also has a website, which contains information about the chamber and economic development in the city.[41]

Notable residents