Thursday, July 23, 2015

Broken Arrow, Oklahoma

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
City
Statue of an early 20th-century family, Centennial Park on Main Street
Statue of an early 20th-century family,
Centennial Park on Main Street
Location of within Tulsa County, and the state of Oklahoma
Location of within Tulsa County, and the state of Oklahoma
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma is located in USA
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 36°2′11″N 95°47′1″WCoordinates: 36°2′11″N 95°47′1″W
Country United States
State Oklahoma
Counties Tulsa, Wagoner
Founded 1902
Incorporated 1903
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City Manager Thom Moton
 • Mayor Craig Thurmond
Area
 • City 45.6 sq mi (118.1 km2)
 • Land 45.0 sq mi (116.5 km2)
 • Water 0.6 sq mi (1.6 km2)
Elevation 755 ft (230 m)
Population (2010)[1]
 • City 98,850
 • Estimate (2014)[2] 104,726
 • Rank US: 278th
 • Density 2,200/sq mi (840/km2)
 • Metro 961,561 (US: 55th)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 74011-74014
Area code(s) 539/918
FIPS code 40-09050
GNIS feature ID 1090512[3]
Website City of Broken Arrow
Broken Arrow is a city located in the northeastern part of the State of Oklahoma, primarily in Tulsa County but also with a section of the city in western Wagoner County. It is the largest suburb of Tulsa. According to the 2010 census, Broken Arrow has a population of 98,850 residents and is the fourth largest city in the state.[4] However, a July 1, 2014, estimate reports that the population of the city is 104,726, making it the 280th largest city in the United States. The city is part of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, which has a population of 961,561 residents.
The Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad sold lots for the town site in 1902 and company secretary William S. Fears named it Broken Arrow.[5] The city was named for a Creek community settled by Creek Indians who had been forced to relocate from Alabama to Oklahoma along the Trail of Tears.
Though Broken Arrow was originally an agricultural community, its current economy is diverse. The city has the third largest concentration of manufacturers in the state.[6]

History

The city's name comes from an old Creek community in Alabama.[7] Members of that community were expelled from Alabama by the United States government, along the Trail of Tears in the 1830s. The Creek founded a new community in the Indian Territory, and named it after their old settlement in Alabama. The town's Creek name was Rekackv (pronounced thlee-Kawtch-kuh), meaning broken arrow. The new Creek settlement was located several miles south of present-day downtown Broken Arrow.
In 1902 the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad planned a railroad through the area and was granted town site privileges along the route.[5] They sold three of the as-yet-unnamed sites to the Arkansas Valley Town Site Company. William S. Fears, secretary of that company, was allowed to choose and name one of the locations. He selected a site about 18 miles southeast of Tulsa and about five miles north of the thlee-Kawtch-kuh settlement and named the new town site Broken Arrow, after the Indian settlement. The MKT railroad, which was completed in 1903, ran through the middle of the city. It still exists today and is now owned by Union Pacific which currently uses it for freight.
For the first decades of Broken Arrow's history, the town's economy was based mainly on agriculture.[8] The coal industry also played an important role, with several strip coal mines located near the city in the early 20th century. The city's newspaper, the Broken Arrow Ledger, started within a couple of years after the city's founding. Broken Arrow's first school was built in 1904.[8] The city did not grow much during the first half of the 1900s. During this time Broken Arrow's main commercial center was along Main Street. Most of the city's churches were also located on or near Main Street as well. A 1907 government census listed Broken Arrow's population at 1383.[9]
Only remnant of Haskell State School of Agriculture, built 1911, demolished 1987.
The Haskell State School of Agriculture opened in the Broken Arrow, Oklahoma Opera House on November 15, 1909. The school closed in 1917 for lack of funding, and the building was then used as by Broken Arrow High School. The building was razed in 1987.[10] Only a marker, shown here, remains at 808 East College Street in Broken Arrow. The front of cornerstone reads, "Haskell State School / Of Agriculture / J. H. Esslinger Supt. / W. A. Etherton Archt. / Bucy & Walker Contr." The side of cornerstone reads "Laid by the Masonic Fraternity / May 25, A. D. 1910, A. L. 5810. / George Huddell G. M. / Erected by The State Board of Agriculture / J. P. Conners Pres. / B. C. Pittuck Dean.". The school is commemorated on the National Register of Historic Places.
In the 1960s, Broken Arrow began to grow from a small town into a suburban city. The Broken Arrow Expressway (Oklahoma State Highway 51) was constructed in the mid-1960s and connected the city with downtown Tulsa, fueling growth in Broken Arrow. The population swelled from a little above 11,000 in 1970 to more than 50,000 in 1990, and then more than 74,000 by the year 2000. During this time, the city was more of a bedroom community. In recent years, city leaders have pushed for more economic development to help keep more Broken Arrowans working, shopping and relaxing in town rather than going to other cities.

Geography and climate

Broken Arrow is located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma. The city is part of the state's Green Country region known for its green vegetation, hills and lakes. Green Country is the most topographically diverse portion of the state with seven of Oklahoma's 11 eco-regions.[11]
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 45.6 square miles (118.1 km²), of which, 45.0 square miles (116.5 km²) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km²) of it (1.34%) is water.

Climate

[hide]Climate data for Broken Arrow, Oklahoma
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 45.7
(7.6)
51.2
(10.7)
61.3
(16.3)
72.1
(22.3)
79.1
(26.2)
87.1
(30.6)
92.9
(33.8)
91.9
(33.3)
83.6
(28.7)
74.5
(23.6)
60.9
(16.1)
49.8
(9.9)
70.8
(21.6)
Average low °F (°C) 22.2
(−5.4)
26.5
(−3.1)
35.5
(1.9)
46.8
(8.2)
56.1
(13.4)
64.8
(18.2)
69.1
(20.6)
66.7
(19.3)
59.3
(15.2)
46.4
(8)
35.8
(2.1)
26.5
(−3.1)
46.3
(7.9)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.6
(41)
1.8
(46)
3.2
(81)
3.5
(89)
5.0
(127)
4.6
(117)
2.9
(74)
2.8
(71)
4.7
(119)
3.7
(94)
3.1
(79)
2.0
(51)
38.8
(986)
Source: Weatherbase.com [12]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 1,383
1910 1,576
14.0%
1920 2,086
32.4%
1930 1,964
−5.8%
1940 2,074
5.6%
1950 3,262
57.3%
1960 5,982
83.4%
1970 11,787
97.0%
1980 35,761
203.4%
1990 58,043
62.3%
2000 74,859
29.0%
2010 98,850
32.0%
Est. 2014 104,726 [13] 5.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[14]
2013 Estimate[2]
According to the 2010 census, there were 98,850 people, 36,141 households, and 27,614 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,200 people per square mile (850/km²). There were 38,013 housing units at an average density of 602.0 per square mile (232.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.3% White, 4.3% African American, 5.2% Native American, 3.6% Asian (1.0% Vietnamese, 0.7% Indian, 0.4% Chinese, 0.3% Korean, 0.3% Hmong, 0.2% Pakistani, 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Japanese),[15] 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, and 5.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino were 6.5% (4.4% Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.3% Spanish, 0.1% Venezuelan, 0.1% Colombian).[16][17]
There were 36,141 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 76.4% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.6% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.11.
In the city the population dispersal was 30.8% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $65,385 and the median income for a family was $74,355. The per capita income for the city was $29,141. About 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line. Of the city's population over the age of 25, 30.3% holds a bachelor's degree or higher.[18][19]

Awards

  • A 2007 crime survey by CQ Press found Broken Arrow to be the 22nd safest city in the nation and the safest city in Oklahoma.
  • Broken Arrow was listed as #66 and #69 in Money Magazine's 2006 & 2012 list of the 100 best places to live.[20]
  • Broken Arrow was listed as one of the "Top 25 Affordable Suburbs in the South" by Business Week Magazine in 2007.
  • The Pride of Broken Arrow marching band won 1st place in the Bands of America Grand Nationals championship at Indianapolis in 2006 & 2011.
  • Broken Arrow has been listed as a "Tree City USA" for over 6 years in a row.
  • Broken Arrow's new logo received an Award of Merit from the Public Relations Society of America - Tulsa Chapter in 2008.
  • Broken Arrow's branding campaign received the 2008 Innovations Award from the Oklahoma Municipal League.
  • Family Circle Magazine featured Broken Arrow as one of the 10 best towns for families in 2008.[21]

Business and industry

Historic building on Main Street after a total restoration (June, 2007).
Broken Arrow is home to a wide range of businesses and industries. In fact, the city is ranked third in its concentration of manufacturers in the state.[6]
Some of the city's more notable employers include:
Located in Broken Arrow since 1985, FlightSafety International (FSI) designs and builds aviation crew training devices called Flight Simulators at its Simulation Systems Division. With currently over 675 employees located there, of which about half are engineers, FSI is the largest private employer in the city. A number of new commercial developments are being built throughout the city, most notably along Oklahoma State Highway 51, which runs through the city. A Bass Pro Shops Outdoor World opened several years ago as the anchor to a development that includes hotels, restaurants, shopping, and eventually offices. A new full-service hospital and medical office building were constructed nearby in 2010 as an anchor to another large commercial development that will include retail space and two hotels. Oklahoma's first Dick's Sporting Goods opened in late 2011.[22]
In 2007 the city created the Broken Arrow Economic Development Corporation to help oversee economic development.[23]
In late 2007, the Broken Arrow Chamber of Commerce began "Advance Broken Arrow", an economic development campaign aimed at expanding and diversifying the city's economic base.[24]

Downtown redevelopment

Historic 1904 Victorian home on Main Street in downtown BA that has been converted into a business. (July, 2007).
In 2005, the city adopted a downtown revitalization master plan to help revive the city's historic downtown area. Some of the plans include a new 3-story museum to house the historical society and genealogical society, a farmer's market and plaza, a new performing arts center, updates and expansions to area parks, the conversion of the historic Central Middle School on Main Street into a professional development center, infrastructure and landscape improvements, and incentives to encourage denser infill, redevelopment, and reuse of the area's historic structures. Numerous buildings and homes have since been renovated, many new shops and offices have moved to downtown, and new townhomes are being built. The new historical museum, farmers market, and performing arts center opened in 2008.
The city also set strict new design standards in place that all new developments in the downtown area must adhere to. These standards were created to prevent "suburban" development in favor of denser, "urban" development and to ensure that new structures compliment and fit in with the historic buildings in downtown. In October 2012 Downtown Broken Arrow's main street corridor was named the Rose District.[25]

Government

City government:[26]
Ward 1 Vice Mayor Richard Carter
Ward 2 Mayor Craig Thurmond
Ward 3 Mike Lester
Ward 4 Scott Eudey
At-Large Johnnie Parks
Broken Arrow uses the council-manager model of municipal government. The city's primary authority resides in the city council which approves ordinances, resolutions, and contracts. The city council consists of five members with four members are elected from the four city wards with the fifth member as an at-large member. Each council member serves for a two-year term and is eligible to serve for four years. Out of the council members, a mayor and vice-mayor is chosen every two years.[26] The day-to-day operations of the city is run by the city manager who reports directly to the city council.[27]
At the federal level, Broken Arrow lies within Oklahoma's 1st congressional district, represented by Jim Bridenstine.[28] In the State Senate, Broken Arrow is in District 25 (Mike Mazzei) and 36 (Bill Brown).[29][30] In the House, District 75 (Dan Kirby), 76 (David Brumbaugh), 98 (John Trebilcock) covers the city.[31]

Education

Primary and secondary schools

Education in Broken Arrow is provided by Broken Arrow Public Schools. The district operates twenty five schools with fifteen Elementary Schools, Five Middle Schools, and Five Secondary Schools.[32] A portion of Broken Arrow is also served by Union Public Schools.[33]

Colleges and universities

Higher education in Broken Arrow is provided by Northeastern State University (Broken Arrow campus). The campus opened in 2001 and has an upperclassmen and graduate student population of 3,000.[34]
Broken Arrow is also served by Tulsa Technology Center Broken Arrow Campus. Established in 1983, it has an enrollment of about 3,500 full and part-time secondary and adult students.[35]
Broken Arrow is also home to Rhema Bible Training Center, established in 1974 by Kenneth E. Hagin; located on 110 acres, it has graduated over 40,000 alumni and has seven ministry concentrations. RBTC is currently led by Hagin's son, Kenneth W. Hagin.

Libraries

The city's two libraries, Broken Arrow Library and South Broken Arrow Library, are part of the Tulsa City-County Library System.

Infrastructure

Major highways in Broken Arrow include State Highway 51 (Broken Arrow Expressway). It passes through the north side of the city and leads to downtown Tulsa to the northwest. Heading east on the Broken Arrow Expressway leads to the Muskogee Turnpike, which connects the city to Muskogee.[36] Partial beltway, Creek Turnpike circles around the south of the city and connects the Turner Turnpike to the west terminus of the Will Rogers Turnpike.[36]
Public transportation for Broken Arrow is provided by Tulsa Transit. It has one route that connects the city to Tulsa. Bus services run Monday through Friday.[37]

Media

Newspapers

Broken Arrow has one newspaper, the Broken Arrow Ledger. The paper is published every Wednesday.[38] It is owned by BH Media Group.[39] The Tulsa World, northeast Oklahoma's major daily newspaper, also features Broken Arrow news regularly. The staff at the Ledger has featured journalists and photographers Lesa Jones, Doug Quinn, and G. B. Poindexter.

Television

Cox Cable channel 24 is the Broken Arrow Government-access television (GATV) cable TV municipal information channel. It displays, among other things, information about the city government, upcoming events, and general information about the city. The channel also features local weather reports.

Internet

Broken Arrow has a website that provides information on the city, its government, local amenities, safety, local news, and economic development.[40] The city's chamber of commerce also has a website, which contains information about the chamber and economic development in the city.[41]

Notable residents

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Mary Kate and Ashley Burke Olsen Two of a Kind Books

 

girl reading book
Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, otherwise known as the Olsen Twins since their rise to fame on the television sitcom Full House, are the stars of a popular book series called Two of a Kind. The book series is a spin-off of their short-lived television show with the same name that follows the girls on adventures through each title.

List of Mary-Kate and Ashley's Two of a Kind Books

The main characters in the Two of a Kind books are the original characters in the television show. The books begin with twins named Mary-Kate and Ashley who live with their single dad. The twins, while opposite in many ways, also have a lot in common – including crushes, school problems and more. As the series progresses, the girls have more grown-up problems. However, it is still appropriate for most children between the ages of 6 and 12.
There are 40 books in the Two of a Kind book series. The list includes:
  1. It's a Twin Thing
  2. How to Flunk Your First Date
  3. The Sleepover Secret
  4. One Twin Too Many
  5. To Snoop or Not to Snoop?
  6. My Sister the Supermodel
  7. Two's a Crowd
  8. Let's Party!
  9. Calling All Boys
  10. Winner Take All
  11. P.S. Wish You Were Here
  12. The Cool Club
  13. War of the Wardrobes
  14. Bye-bye Boyfriend
  15. It's Snow Problem
  16. Likes Me, Likes Me Not
  17. Shore Thing
  18. Two for the Road
  19. Surprise, Surprise!
  20. Sealed with a Kiss
  21. Now You See Him, Now You Don't
  22. April Fools' Rules!
  23. Island Girls
  24. Surf, Sand, and Secrets
  25. Closer Than Ever
  26. The Perfect Gift
  27. The Facts About Flirting
  28. The Dream Date Debate
  29. Love-Set-Match
  30. Making a Splash
  31. Dare to Scare
  32. Santa Girls
  33. Heart to Heart
  34. Prom Princess
  35. Camp Rock 'n' Roll
  36. Twist and Shout
  37. Hocus-pocus
  38. Holiday Magic
  39. Candles, Cake, Celebrate!
  40. Wish on a Star
Many of the titles in the Two of a Kind series are also part of a series called Two of a Kind Diaries. The Diaries books are written by both Mary-Kate and Ashley's characters as if they were writing in a real journal, rather than in the standard storytelling narrative used in the other Two of a Kind books.

Friday, July 3, 2015

Shen Nong Jia

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shennongjia
神农架林区
Forestry district
Muyu Town in Shennongjia
Muyu Town in Shennongjia
Location of Shennongjia within China and within Hubei
Location of Shennongjia within China and within Hubei
Shennongjia is located in Hubei
Shennongjia
Shennongjia
Location in Hubei
Coordinates: 31°35′N 110°30′ECoordinates: 31°35′N 110°30′E
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hubei
Seat Songbai
Government
 • Mayor Zhou Senfeng (周森锋)
Area
 • Total 3,253 km2 (1,256 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 76,140
 • Density 23/km2 (61/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Website www.snj.gov.cn
Shennongjia Forestry District
Simplified Chinese 神农架林区
Traditional Chinese 神農架林區
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 神农架
Traditional Chinese 神農架
Shennongjia Forestry District (Chinese: 神农架林区) is a county-level administrative unit (a "forestry district") in northwestern Hubei province, People's Republic of China, directly subordinated to the provincial government. It occupies 3,253 square kilometres (1,256 sq mi) in western Hubei, and, as of 2007 had the resident population estimated at 74,000 (with the registered population of 79,976).
The population is predominantly (95%) Han Chinese, the remaining 5% being mostly Tujia.

Contents

Administration

An isolated farmhouse near Wenshui Village, Hongping Town
The administrative status of Shennongjia is rather unique, in that it is the only county-level administrative unit of the People's Republic of China that is designated a "forestry district" (林区), rather than a more usual county or county-level city.
Shennongjia's status within Hubei is also somewhat unusual, in that this county-level unit is directly administered by the provincial government as opposed to be part of a prefecture-level city or prefecture, as are Hubei's all "normal" counties. However, this arrangement is not unique to Shennongjia, as Hubei also has three county-level cities (Xiantao, Tianmen, Qianjiang) which are directly under the provincial government, without being part of a prefecture-level unit.
The district was created in 1970 from the adjacent areas of Badong County, Xingshan County, and Fang County.

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Orlando, Florida

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Orlando" redirects here. For other uses, see Orlando (disambiguation).
"The City Beautiful" redirects here. For the city with same nickname in India, see Chandigarh.
Orlando, Florida
City
City of Orlando
Downtown Orlando
Orange County Courthouse Entrance to Universal Studios Florida Cinderella Castle at Magic Kingdom
Entrance to Gatorland SeaWorld Orlando Amway Center
Fountain at Lake Eola Citrus Bowl Church Street Station
Flag of Orlando, Florida
Flag
Official seal of Orlando, Florida
Seal
Nickname(s): "The City Beautiful," "O-Town,"[1] "Theme Park Capital of the World"[2][3][4]
Location in Orange County and the state of Florida
Location in Orange County and the state of Florida
Orlando is located in USA
Orlando
Orlando
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 28°24′57″N 81°17′56″WCoordinates: 28°24′57″N 81°17′56″W[5]
Country United States of America
State Florida
County Orange
Settled July 31, 1875
Incorporated 1885
Government
 • Type Mayor–Commission
 • Mayor Buddy Dyer (D)
Area[5][6]
 • Total 110.7 sq mi (287 km2)
 • Land 102.4 sq mi (265 km2)
 • Water 8.3 sq mi (21 km2)
 • Urban 652.64 sq mi (1,690.3 km2)
Elevation[7] 82 ft (25 m)
Population (2010)[6][8][9]
 • Total 238,300
 • Estimate (2013) 255,483
 • Rank 77th, U.S.
 • Density 2,327.3/sq mi (898.6/km2)
 • Urban 1,510,516 (32nd, U.S.)
 • Metro 2,267,846 (26th, U.S.)
 • CSA 2,975,658 (17th, U.S.)
Demonym Orlandoan
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s) 32801–32899
Area code(s) 321, 407
FIPS code 12-53000
GNIS feature ID 0288240[7]
Website www.cityoforlando.net
Orlando (/ɔrˈlænd/) is a city in the U.S. state of Florida, and the county seat of Orange County. Located in Central Florida, it is the center of the Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 2,134,411 at the 2010 census, making it the 26th largest metropolitan area in the United States, the sixth largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States, and the third largest metropolitan area in the state of Florida. In 2010, Orlando had a city-proper population of 238,300, making it the 77th largest city in the United States, the fifth largest city in Florida, and the state's largest inland city.
The City of Orlando is nicknamed "The City Beautiful" and its symbol is the fountain at Lake Eola. Orlando is also known as "The Theme Park Capital of the World" and in 2014 its tourist attractions and events drew more than 62 million visitors.[10] The Orlando International Airport (MCO) is the thirteenth busiest airport in the United States and the 29th busiest in the world.[11] Buddy Dyer is Orlando's mayor.
As the most visited American city in 2009,[12] Orlando's famous attractions form the backbone of its tourism industry: Walt Disney World Resort, located approximately 21 miles (34 km) southwest of Downtown Orlando in Lake Buena Vista, opened by the Walt Disney Company in 1971; the Universal Orlando Resort, opened in 1999 as a major expansion of Universal Studios Florida; SeaWorld; Gatorland; and Wet 'n Wild. With the exception of Walt Disney World, most major attractions are located along International Drive. The city is also one of the busiest American cities for conferences and conventions.
Like other major cities in the Sun Belt, Orlando grew rapidly during the 1980s and into the first decade of the 21st century. Orlando is home to the University of Central Florida, which is the second-largest university campus in the United States in terms of enrollment as of 2012. In 2010, Orlando was listed as a "Gamma−" level of world-city in the World Cities Study Group’s inventory.[13] Orlando ranks as the fourth most popular American city based on where people want to live according to a 2009 Pew Research Center study.[14]

History

Lake Lucerne c. 1905

Pre-European history

Before European settlers arrived in 1536, Orlando was sparsely populated by the Creek and other Native American tribes. There are very few archaeological sites in the area today, except for the ruins of Fort Gatlin along the shores of modern-day Lake Gatlin south of downtown Orlando.

Name

Prior to being known by its current name, Orlando was known as Jernigan. This originates from the first permanent settler, Aaron Jernigan, a cattleman who acquired land along Lake Holden by the terms of the Armed Occupation Act of 1842.[15]
City officials and local legend say the name Orlando originated from a soldier named Orlando Reeves who died in 1835 during a supposed attack by Native Americans in the area during the Second Seminole War. Reeves was acting as a sentinel for a company of soldiers that had set up camp for the night on the banks of Sandy Beach Lake (now Lake Eola).[16] There are conflicting legends, however, as an in-depth review of military records in the 1970s and 1980s turned up no record of Orlando Reeves ever existing.[16] The legend grew throughout the early 1900s, particularly with local historian Kena Fries' retelling in various writings and on local radio station WDBO in 1929.[16] A memorial beside Lake Eola – originally placed by students of Orlando's Cherokee Junior School in 1939[16] – designates the spot where the city's supposed namesake fell.
Local historians have come up with a more credible version of the "Reeves" story. During the Second Seminole War, the U.S. Army established an outpost at Fort Gatlin, a few miles south of the modern downtown, in 1838, but it was quickly abandoned when the war came to an end. Most pioneers did not arrive until after the Third Seminole War in the 1850s. Many early residents made their living by cattle ranching. One such resident was a South Carolinian Orlando Savage Rees.[17] Rees owned several large estates in Florida and Mississippi. On two separate occasions, relatives of Rees claimed their ancestor was the namesake of the city. F.K. Bull of South Carolina (Rees' great-grandson) told an Orlando reporter of a story in 1955; years later, Charles M. Bull Jr. of Orlando (Rees' great-great-grandson) offered local historians similar information.[17] Rees most certainly did exist and was in Florida during that time period: in 1832 John James Audubon met with Rees in his large estate at Spring Garden, about 45 minutes away from Orlando.[17] In 1837, Rees also attempted to stop a peace Treaty with the Indians because it did not reimburse him for the loss of slaves and crops. The story goes Rees' sugar farms in the area were burned out in the Seminole attacks in 1835 (the year Orlando Reeves supposedly died). Subsequently, he led an expedition to recover stolen slaves and cattle. It is believed he could have left a pine-bough marker with his name next to the trail, and later residents misread the sign as "Reeves" and thought it was his grave.[17] In the years since the telling of this story, it has merged with the Orlando Reeves story. Some variants attempt to account for Reeves having no military records by using the name of another 'Orlando' that exists in some written records – Orlando Acosta. Not much is known about Acosta and if he even existed.
In 1975, local historian, and then chairman of the county historical commission, Judge Donald A. Cheney put forth a new version of the story in an Orlando Sentinel article.[17] Cheney is the son of Judge John Moses Cheney, a major figure in Orlando's history who arrived in Orlando in 1885. John Cheney knew James Speer – another major figure who proposed the name of Orlando. Cheney's retelling relates how Speer proposed the name Orlando after one of the main characters in the Shakespeare play As You Like It. Speer, "was a gentleman of culture and an admirer of William Shakespeare...According to him, [Orlando] was a veritable Forest of Arden, the locale of As You Like It."[17] One of the main streets in downtown Orlando is named Rosalind Avenue, after Rosalind, the heroine of the play. Speer's descendants have also confirmed this version of the naming and the legend has continued to grow.[17]
What is known for certain is Jernigan became Orlando in 1857. The move is believed to be sparked, in part, by Aaron Jernigan's fall from grace after he was relieved of his military command by military officials in 1856. His behavior was so notorious that Secretary of War Jefferson Davis wrote, "It is said they [Jernigan's militia] are more dreadful than the Indians."[17] At a meeting in 1857, debate had grown concerning the name of the town. Pioneer William B. Hull recalled how Speer rose in the heat of the argument and said, "This place is often spoken of as 'Orlando's Grave.' Let's drop the word 'grave' and let the county seat be Orlando."[17] Through this retelling of history, it is believed that a marker of some sort was indeed found by Jernigan (or one of the other original pioneers); but, others claim Speer simply used the folk legend to help push for the Shakespearian name.

Incorporation

After Mosquito County was divided in 1845, Orlando became the county seat of the new Orange County in 1856. It remained a rural backwater during the Civil War, and suffered greatly during the Union blockade. The Reconstruction Era brought on a population explosion, which led to Orlando's incorporation as a town on July 31, 1875, and as a city in 1885.[18]
The period from 1875 to 1895 is remembered as Orlando's Golden Era, when it became the hub of Florida's citrus industry. But the Great Freeze of 1894–95 forced many owners to give up their independent groves, thus consolidating holdings in the hands of a few "citrus barons" who shifted operations south, primarily around Lake Wales in Polk County.[citation needed]
The Wyoming Hotel c. 1905
Notable homesteaders in the area included the Curry family. Through their property in east Orlando flowed the Econlockhatchee River, which travelers crossed by fording. This would be commemorated by the street's name, Curry Ford Road. Also, just south of the airport in the Boggy Creek area was 150 acres (0.61 km2) of property homesteaded in the late 19th century by the Ward family. This property is still owned by the Ward family, and can be seen from flights out of Orlando International Airport southbound immediately on the south side of SR 417.

After Industrial Revolution

Orlando, as Florida's largest inland city, became a popular resort during the years between the Spanish–American War and World War I. In the 1920s, Orlando experienced extensive housing development during the Florida Land Boom. Land prices soared. During this period several neighborhoods in downtown were constructed, endowing it with many bungalows. The boom ended when several hurricanes hit Florida in the late 1920s, along with the Great Depression.
During World War II, a number of Army personnel were stationed at the Orlando Army Air Base and nearby Pinecastle Army Air Field. Some of these servicemen stayed in Orlando to settle and raise families. In 1956 the aerospace and defense company Martin Marietta (now Lockheed Martin) established a plant in the city. Orlando AAB and Pinecastle AAF were transferred to the United States Air Force in 1947 when it became a separate service and were re-designated as air force bases (AFB). In 1958, Pinecastle AFB was renamed McCoy Air Force Base after Colonel Michael N. W. McCoy, a former commander of the 320th Bombardment Wing at the installation, killed in the crash of a B-47 Stratojet bomber north of Orlando. In the 1960s, the base subsequently became home to the 306th Bombardment Wing of the Strategic Air Command (SAC), operating B-52 Stratofortress and KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft, in addition to detachment operations by EC-121 and U-2 aircraft.
In 1968, Orlando AFB was transferred to the United States Navy and became Naval Training Center Orlando. In addition to boot camp facilities, NTC Orlando was home of one of two Navy Nuclear Power Schools, and home of the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division. When McCoy AFB closed in 1975, its runways and territory to its south and east were imparted to the city to become Orlando International Airport, while a small portion to the northwest was transferred to the Navy as McCoy NTC Annex. That closed in 1996, and became housing, though the former McCoy AFB still hosts a Navy Exchange, as well as National Guard and Reserve units for several branches of service. NTC Orlando was closed in 1993 by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission, and converted into the Baldwin Park neighborhood. The Air Warfare Center had moved to Central Florida Regional Park near UCF in 1988.
Lucerne Circle c. 1905

Tourism in history

Perhaps the most critical event for Orlando's economy occurred in 1965 when Walt Disney announced plans to build Walt Disney World. Although Disney had considered the regions of Miami and Tampa for his park, one of the major reasons behind his decision not to locate there was due to hurricanes – Orlando's inland location, although not free from hurricane damage, exposed it to less threat than coastal regions. The vacation resort opened in October 1971, ushering in an explosive population and economic growth for the Orlando metropolitan area, which now encompasses Orange, Seminole, Osceola, and Lake counties. As a result, tourism became the centerpiece of the area's economy. Orlando now has more theme parks and entertainment attractions than anywhere else in the world.[citation needed]
Another major factor in Orlando's growth occurred in 1962, when the new Orlando Jetport, the precursor of the present day Orlando International Airport, was built from a portion of the McCoy Air Force Base. By 1970, four major airlines (Delta Air Lines, National Airlines, Eastern Airlines and Southern Airways) were providing scheduled flights. McCoy Air Force Base officially closed in 1975, and most of it is now part of the airport. The airport still retains the former Air Force Base airport code (MCO).

Present day

View of Downtown Orlando (center) and periphery to Lake Apopka (upper-right); January 2011
Today, the historic core of "Old Orlando" resides in Downtown Orlando along Church Street, between Orange Avenue and Garland Avenue. Urban development and the Central Business District of downtown have rapidly shaped the downtown skyline during recent history. The present-day historic district is primarily associated with the neighborhoods around Lake Eola where century old oaks line brick streets. These neighborhoods, known as "Lake Eola Heights" and "Thornton Park," contain some of the oldest homes in Orlando.

Geography and cityscape

Lake Eola in 1911
The geography of Orlando is mostly wetlands, consisting of many lakes and swamps. The terrain is generally flat, making the land fairly low and wet.[citation needed] The area is dotted with hundreds of lakes, the largest of which is Lake Apopka. Central Florida's bedrock is mostly limestone and very porous; the Orlando area is susceptible to sinkholes. Probably the most famous incident involving a sinkhole happened in 1981 in Winter Park, a city immediately north of downtown Orlando, dubbed ""The Winter Park Sinkhole".
There are 115 neighborhoods within the city limits of Orlando and many unincorporated communities. Orlando's city limits resemble a checkerboard, with pockets of unincorporated Orange County surrounded by city limits. Such an arrangement can be cumbersome[citation needed] as some areas are served by both Orange County and the City of Orlando. This also explains Orlando's relatively low city population when compared to its metropolitan population. The city and county are currently working together in an effort to "round-out" the city limits with Orlando annexing portions of land already bordering the current city limits.[19][not in citation given]

Skyscrapers

Metro Orlando has a total of 19 completed skyscrapers. The majority are located in Downtown Orlando and the rest are located in the tourist district southwest of downtown.[20] Skyscrapers built in downtown Orlando have not exceeded 441 ft (134 m) since 1988 when SunTrust Center was completed. There has never been an official reason why, but local architects speculate[citation needed] restrictions imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration, as the Orlando Executive Airport is located four miles (6 km) east of downtown Orlando.

Downtown Orlando

Orlando skyline at night

Outside Downtown Orlando