From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Latin: Universitas Regiæ Georgiæ Augustæ|
|Motto||In publica commoda (Latin)
Zum Wohle aller
Motto in English
|For the good of all|
|Type||Public Law foundation (Stiftung öffentlichen Rechts, since 2003)|
|Budget||€1.05 billion (2012)|
|Location||Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany|
|Affiliations||German Excellence Universities
18th – 19th centuriesThroughout the remainder of the 18th century the University of Göttingen was in the top rank of German universities, with its free spirit and atmosphere of scientific exploration and research. Famous till our days is Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, the first to hold a professorship (1769–99) explicitly dedicated to experimental physics in Germany. By 1812, Göttingen had become an internationally acknowledged modern university with a library of more than 250,000 volumes.
In the first years of the University of Göttingen it became known for its faculty of law. In the 18th century Johann Stephan Pütter, the most prestigious scholar of public law at that time, taught jus publicum here for half a century. The subject had attracted students such as Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich, later diplomat and Prime Minister of Austria, and Wilhelm von Humboldt, who later established the University of Berlin. In 1809 Arthur Schopenhauer, the German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation, became a student at the university, where he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze, who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Kant.
However, political disturbances, in which both professors and students were implicated, lowered the attendance to 860 in 1834. The expulsion in 1837 of the seven professors – Die Göttinger Sieben – the Germanist, Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht (1800–1876); the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann (1785–1860); the orientalist Georg Heinrich August Ewald (1803–1875); the historian Georg Gottfried Gervinus (1805–1875); the physicist Wilhelm Eduard Weber (1804–1891); and the philologists, the brothers Jakob (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859), for protesting against the revocation by King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover of the liberal constitution of 1833, further reduced the prosperity of the university. Prior to this, the Brothers Grimm had taught here and compiled the first German Dictionary.
Göttingen also had a focus on natural science, especially mathematics. Carl Friedrich Gauss taught here in the 19th century. Bernhard Riemann, Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and a number of significant mathematicians made their contributions to mathematics here. By 1900, David Hilbert and Felix Klein had attracted mathematicians from around the world to Göttingen, which made Göttingen a world mecca of mathematics at the beginning of the 20th century.
End of the 19th century – beginning of the 20th centuryDuring this period, the University of Göttingen achieved its academic peak.
From 1921 to 1933, the physics theory group was led by Max Born, who, during this time, became one of the three discoverers of the non-relativistic theory of quantum mechanics. He may also have been the first to propose its probabilistic relationship with classical physics. It was one of the main centers of the development of modern physics.
To date, 47 Nobel Prize laureates have studied, taught or made contributions here. Most of these prizes were given in the first half of the 20th century, which was called the "Göttingen Nobel prize wonder".
"Great purge" of 1933In the 1930s, the university became a focal point for the Nazi crackdown on "Jewish physics", as represented by the work of Albert Einstein. In what was later called the "great purge" of 1933, academics including Max Born, Victor Goldschmidt, James Franck, Eugene Wigner, Leó Szilárd, Edward Teller, Emmy Noether, and Richard Courant were expelled or fled. Most of them fled Nazi Germany for places like the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
Renovation after WarAfter World War II, the University of Göttingen was the first university in the western Zones to be re-opened under British control in 1945. Jürgen Habermas, a German philosopher and sociologist, pursued his study here in Göttingen. Later, Richard von Weizsäcker, the former President of Germany, earned his Dr.Jur. here. Gerhard Schröder, the former Chancellor of Germany, also graduated from the school of law here in Göttingen, and he became a lawyer thereafter.
Current statusToday the university consists of 13 faculties and around 26,000 students are enrolled. More than 400 professors and 4,000 academic staff work at the university, assisted by a technical and administrative staff of over 7,000. The post-war expansion of the university led to the establishment of a new, modern 'university quarter' in the north of the town. The architecture of the old university can still be seen in the Auditorium Maximum (1826/1865) and the Great Hall (1835/1837) at Wilhelmsplatz.
Faculties, Centers, and InstitutesThe university encompasses 13 faculties and a total of 47 additional centers and institutes (including associated centers and institutes but excluding institutes that operate within the faculties themselves as well as the Max Planck Institutes, which collaborate with the university).
The faculties are:
- Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
- Faculty of Biology and Psychology
- Faculty of Chemistry
- Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology
- Faculty of Geoscience and Geography
- Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science
- Faculty of Physics
- Faculty of Law
- Faculty of Social Sciences
- Faculty of Economic Sciences
- Faculty of Humanities
- Faculty of Theology
- Medical Center (Universitätsmedizin Göttingen)
- Göttingen Research Campus
- Göttingen Academy of Sciences and Humanities
- GWDG (IT Center)
- German Aerospace Center (DLR)
- German Primate Center
- Institute for Regional Research
- Institute of the Protestant Church in Germany for Ecclesiastical Law
- Laser Laboratory Göttingen
- Centrum Orbis Orientalis et Occidentalis (CORO) – Center for Ancient and Oriental Studies
- Center for Modern East Asian Studies (CeMEAS)
- Center for Modern Indian Studies (CeMIS)
- Courant Research Center: Education and Religion
- Courant Research Center: Text Structures
- Göttingen Center for Digital Humanities
- Centrum Orbis Orientalis et Occidentalis (CORO) - Abteilung Lehre II - Antike Kulturen
- Internationales Schreibzentrum
- Center for Medieval and Early Modern Studies (ZMF)
- Center of Modern Humanities (ZTMK)
- Center for Comparative Literature Studies
- Forum for Interdisciplinary Religious Studies (FIRSt)
- Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Göttingen (BCCN)
- Courant Research Center: Evolution of Social Behaviour
- Courant Research Center: Geobiology
- Courant Research Center: Nano-Spectroscopy and X-Ray Imaging
- Courant Research Center: Higher Order Structures in Mathematics
- DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) Research Center for the Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CMPB)
- European Neuroscience Institute (ENI)
- Geosciene Center
- Göttingen Center for Molecular Biosciences (GZMB)
- Center of Biodiversity and sustainable Land Use
- Center for Statistics (ZfS)
- Center for Systems Neuroscience
- Center for Computational Sciences
- Research Center for Animal Production and Technology
- Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research (cege)
- Courant Research Center: Poverty, Equity and Growth in Developing Countries
- Institute of Diversity Research
- Interdisciplinary Center for Sustainable Development (IZNE)
- Center for Social Science Methods (MZS)
- Center for Empirical Research into Teaching and Schools (ZeUS)
- Center for Medical Law
- Institute of Regional Research
- Institute of Sugar Beet Research
- Sociological Research Institute (SOFI)
- Institute of Economics in Small Business Economics
- Institute of Applied Plant Nutrition (IAPN)
- SFB 755 Nanoscale Photonic Imaging
- SFB 803 Functionality Controlled by Organization in and between Membranes
- SFB 860 Integrative Structural Biology of Dynamic Macromolecular Assemblies
- SFB 889 Cellular Mechanisms of Sensory Processing
- SFB 937 Collective Behavior of Soft and Biological Matter
- SFB 963 Astrophysical Flow Instabilities and Turbulence
- SFB 990 Ecological and Socioeconomic Functions of Tropical Lowland Rainforest Transformation Systems (Sumatra, Indonesia)
- SFB 1002 Modulatory Units in Heart Failure
- SFB 1073 Atomic Scale Control of Energy Conversion